Toppers handwritten notes a comprehensive package for the preparation of JEE Main & Advanced which is designed by Top 100 IIT-JEE Rankers. Through our hard work we have developed handwritten notes of students who topped previous JEE exams & secured AIR under 100.These are highly self explanatory notes for JEE main , JEE advanced & other regional exams.
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Physical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry which is quite like mathematics and physics in developing underlying principles of chemistry. It observes and explains the physical and chemical properties of matter. Physical chemistry at IIT JEE level starts from basics of mole concept, quantities at atomic level and covers energy, thermodynamics and kinetics which forms the basis of how reactions occur. Various topics covered in physical chemistry such as stoichiometry, chemical equilibrium, concentration of solutions, atomic structure, thermodynamics or chemical energetic form the backbone of chemistry at IIT JEE level and higher chemistry at graduate and post graduate level.
Mole concept-1: Concept of atoms and molecules, Dalton’s atomic theory, Mole concept, Chemical formulae, Balanced chemical equations, Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralization and displacement reactions, Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity and normality.
Atomic Structure: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis, Uncertainty principle, Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbital’s, Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36), Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, Orbital overlap and covalent bond.
Gaseous And Liquid States: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation, Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature, Law of partial pressures, Vapour pressure, Diffusion of gases.
Mole concept-2: Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Chemical Equilibrium: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Thermodynamics & Thermochemistry: First law of thermodynamics, Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work, Enthalpy, Hess’s law, Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization, Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy, Free energy, Criterion of spontaneity.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Electrochemistry: Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law and its applications, Electrochemical cells, Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst equation and its applications, Relationship between cell potential and Gibb’s energy change, Dry cell and lead accumulator, Fuel cells, Corrosion and its prevention.
Chemical kinetics: Rate of chemical reactions, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst, elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Solid State: Classification of solids, molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), Bragg’s Law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
Surface chemistry: Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids-Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism. Distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic, multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids-Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, Emulsions and their characteristics.
Solutions & colligative properties: Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions, Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure, Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties, Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
Radioactivity:Isotopes and isobars, Properties of alpha, beta and gamma rays, Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating, Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio, brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.