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Organic chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon. Although many organic compounds are isolated from plant and animal sources, most of them can be synthesized. All the organic compounds contain the element carbon. Compounds of carbon with hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Apart from hydrogen, organic compounds may also contains carbon atom bonded with sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogen atoms.
Basics of Organic Chemistry: Tetravalency of carbon, Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p), Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, Homologous series, Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) & Isomerism: IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds), Structural and geometrical isomerism, Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded), Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections).
Practical Organic Chemistry (POC): Detection of elements (N, S, halogens), Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro, Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.
General Organic Chemistry(GOC): Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation, Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals, Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases, Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage, electrophiles and nucleophiles, Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Tautomerism: Keto-enol tautomerism, Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method).
Reaction Intermediate: Basic concepts of Carbocations, Carbanions, Free Radicals, Carbenes, Arenium Ions, Benzynes. Reactions of halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, Effect of o-, m- and p- directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.
Alkanes – Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density), Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane), Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes, Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions
Alkenes – Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes, Geometrical isomerism, Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis, oxidation and polymerization.
Alkynes – Preparation, properties and reactions of alkynes, Acidic character, Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, Polymerization.
Alkyl halides: Rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions.
Aryl Hallides or Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).
Alcohols: Esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones, Uses, Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation), Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.
Ethers: Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis and structure.
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group, Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones, Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent, oxidation, reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen), acidity of alpha – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction, Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic acids: Formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis, Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic characters. Basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene-structure and aromaticity, Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Amino Acids & Proteins – Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids– Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
Polymers: General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization.
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.